Grow ornamental, fruit-culture indoors is quite difficult. For good growth of any plant need light and heat. Otherwise, the greens will be slow to develop, turn yellow, and the color may not appear at all. Need room stands in the sunlight in the winter. Experienced growers for cultivation of seedlings and the few cultures in this period use led lamps for plants.
- Plants and light: the need for a backlight
- The advantages and disadvantages of the use of lamps
- Light feature
- Types of lamps for lighting plants
- Incandescent bulbs
- Fluorescent lamps
- Gas discharge lamp
- Led bulb
- How to choose a led fitolamp
- The shape and size of fitolampy
- The range and power diodes
- The number of fixtures and installation rules
- How to make fotovitriny their hands
Plants and light: the need for a backlight
For the growth and development of any living organisms requires energy. To start this process in plants, photosynthesis helps. Only under the action of sunlight the green parts of the crop can develop properly. Even if the flower gets enough moisture and nutrients in the form of fertilizers, but a little light – it will look like the oppressed.
The procedure of whitening is carried out in the morning or evening, without depriving the plants of the natural sun at the time of sunrise and sunset. Culture must not be under artificial lights for more than 12 hours. To determine the need for additional lighting for different types, you can use the light meter. Shade will be enough 2000 Lux, light suit Suite 2500, with the condition to increase the rate up to 5000 at the time of setting of buds and flowering. Lemons and oranges can form a knot on the window sill only at high light – 9000 Suite.
For lighting can be used in different lamp type. Among the recommended – high intensity discharge, fluorescent, led. Household incandescent lamps tungsten filament is better not to use. They provide a low light intensity, their bright infrared beams to overly accelerate the growth of culture, making the stems long and the leaves are small.
The advantages and disadvantages of the use of lamps
The main purpose of the additional illumination will compensate for the lack of sun, good growth stimulation. The installation of such devices is particularly necessary in the early spring, when daylight is short. The benefits of installing lamps of artificial light emission on homemade beds are the following:
- The ease of use. The design of any type of lamps you can install your own hands. For the installation you will not need to have special equipment and certain skills;
- The durability of the devices. The average lifespan of a quality instrument – 50 thousand hours. With daily use for up to 12 hours they will last more than 10 years;
- The ability to adjust the intensity. An important feature that allows you to set the desired brightness of the lighting in different period of plant growth;
- The direction of the light to the desired angle. Lighting affects only a specific area that enables the heat to remain constant, and the seedlings get the necessary heat;
- Aesthetics. Moderate supplementary lighting will fill your room with coziness in the autumn, will create a romantic atmosphere;
- Security. Fitolampy absolutely harmless to humans, do not heat over 55° C.
All kinds of fitolamp have some disadvantages. To minimise the negative impact is possible if correctly to install the equipment, calculating the angle of incidence of the light and its brightness. The main disadvantages of excessive ripple some types of sources, the radiation of the blue spectrum.
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When growing plants way housing lamp power to accelerate photosynthesis is not significant. Special attention should be given to the range of instruments and their similarity to natural sunlight. A light beam can have one thread or include multiple waves of a certain length. The plants have a characteristic influence of the following color spectrum:
Types of lamps for lighting plants
Large assortment of lamps for plants of different types makes their selection difficult. Before you purchase the device you need to familiarize yourself with its characteristics. Determine in advance the purpose of the plant – cultivating seed from scratch or adjustment of the development has green stems. Each model has its advantages and disadvantages.
The light is rarely used because of the low light output and a large heat. Such devices are generally not recommended to place near the plants. From a distance the lights will not have efficiency. Growers use incandescent lamps to create favorable temperature conditions in greenhouses, aquarium tanks.
Plants need lighting for just a few hours a day, subject to finding pots on the windowsill. But such a small time operation will be very energetically costly.
If you use the incandescent together with fluorescent devices, can successfully Supplement the range in red.
It is advisable to apply in small areas. The standard model does not accelerate plant growth. To provide for photosynthesis, will help the device with a two-component phosphor coating and the maximum radiation of the red, blue color spectrum.
There are household and professional devices. When choosing a model it is necessary to pay attention to the range of luminescence. It needs to fit the specific case: for full coverage of small aquaria for lighting of individual zones, for greenhouses in combination with additional sources. Fluorescent lamps have the following advantages:
- Provide excellent light output with low energy consumption;
- Have a wide range of shades;
- Emit a soft, ambient light;
- Can work up to 15 thousand hours.
Gas discharge lamp
A large group of lamps for seedlings, which includes high, low pressure. All models are completely harmless, that allows to use them in large numbers in greenhouses and dwellings. For plants using the following types of gas discharge devices:
- The metal halide. A very bright radiation with a stable light output suitable for commercial cultivation, a spacious greenhouses. Maximum similarity of artificial radiation with fluorescent light (95%). Dominates the blue spectrum, which promotes the formation of young seedlings. Cons – high price. The probability of an explosion with increasing voltage.
- Sodium. Shine in the red-orange range due to the gaseous environment created by the sodium vapor. Suitable for use in the flowering period, the ovary of the fruit. Durable, economical devices often have a small size, allowing direct emitter in the desired direction. Cons – large heating, attracting insects, pests, noise, poor lighting in the cold. Instant failure if you hit any liquid on the lighting device.
- Mercury. The radiation is in the red spectrum, which has a positive effect on the development of already formed plants. However, this option for lighting is rarely used because of the large number of negative factors. These include a strong surge of light, low color rendering index, high ultraviolet radiation.
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Ideal lighting. A variety of models allows to install the equipment in large greenhouses and small windowsill. For shelving use wireless lights, for example, from aliexpress. The spectral range includes all the necessary shades for plant growth. Installing LEDs in different capacities, you can get the ideal supplementary lighting for a specific type of seedling.
Led lamps can be placed very close to seedlings without risk of burns leaf plates. They start instantly, provide a smooth glow. Depending on the number of seedlings and the type of shelving used models of the following forms:
- Fitpanel or tablet. Professional lamp in the shape of a square set on wide shelves;
- Pipe. Used to illuminate the plants located on the window sills, on long, narrow shelves along the wall;
- Led spotlights. Covering an impressive area with a large distance;
- Single lamps. Used for flowers of the same type, collected together;
- The led strip. The lamps are handmade, combining the colors of the spectrum in arbitrary order.
How to choose a led fitolamp
To establish a proper design with lighting for plants is possible only after a complete analysis of the seedlings. An important factor is the region of the landing characteristics of the space, the distance from the lamp to the plants, the location of the light-requiring, shade-loving specimens. You should also choose a suitable form of lamp, to ensure the possibility to control the duration of illumination.
The shape and size of fitolampy
Led bulbs can be of any shape and size. Choose the design you need, focusing only on their own needs. Fitolampy produced in the following variations:
- Ground. Used to create ambient lighting. In larger rooms, install several devices. Often mounted in the ceiling, sometimes on the lateral surface, depending on the capacity and type of plants. The lamp can contain one or several spectra with different wavelengths. Some spotlights can be installed over a certain area with an area of 0.5 m.
- Square. Often used as the only source of light, placed in a special box at a certain height from plants. Powerful fitpanel have multiple led modules or one big charge. Some modern models are equipped with a power switch, a cooling system.
- Linear. Use to illuminate counters, shelves, tables. The lamps have an elongated shape, reminiscent of the devices of daylight. They emit identical glow as the ground model. Used as main, additional lighting. The special design allows you to hang the device at any height. Spectral characteristics are divided into several types (Bicolor, Complex, Full range).
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The range and power diodes
Sunlight, so necessary for the growth of plants, consists of waves of different lengths. The same waves emit artificial lighting. Especially respond well to the culture the red and blue color spectrum. Produce bi-color lights or with only one source — monocolore. The right combination of colors is achieved by combination of LEDs.
When selecting bulbs for growing seedlings, special attention should be paid to the spectrogram. This information can be found on the packaging of the device. The special scale values of each color.
An important indicator when choosing fitolampy – power diodes. This could be 1 watt, 3 watts, 5 watts. The higher panel is installed, the stronger must be the LEDs. For a small suspension height will fit flat modules, with a power of 1 watt. For continuous operation with an average load of the device must have a cooling module.
Many manufacturers of led lamps indicate the instrument only nominal power. To determine the real performance indicator should be split in half.
The number of fixtures and installation rules
The favorable development of the plants takes place with sufficient lighting. To improve this figure it is possible not only due to the quality of radiation, but with the number of devices. Required number of bulbs is calculated for specific conditions. In order to make the calculations and provide the plant with quality illumination, it is necessary to take into account the following aspects:
- The area of the premises;
- Number of seedlings;
- Distance from the devices to high cultures;
- The need for additional light for each instance.
Fitolampy will have maximum effect if to place them correctly in the apartment. Most of all light emission comes from the close to the plant devices. The minimum distance from the bulb to the seedlings to 25 cm. They should be focused strictly on culture.
How to make fotovitriny their hands
Ready led panels or individual lamps have not always justified the cost. To do a trial run and to properly fit the parameters of lighting in the house, you can use a homemade device. For work will need to have the following materials:
- Base-frame for their installation;
- Power supply with adjustable power;
- The copper connecting wires.
First choose the color and power diodes based on the type and needs of the seedlings, calculated the necessary amount of light. Into account is taken the time of year, availability, location of the window. The role of the frame can perform the old fluorescent lamp, a plastic box, any available material of suitable shape.
Now start collecting fitolampy. Start with mounting the LEDs on an aluminum plate via a sticky layer on the reverse side of the tape or double-sided tape. Connect them in series, parallel, installing current-limiting connection. For connection you can use a soldering iron or connectors.
Led lamps have a tremendous impact on seed germination and plant growth. You can use any professional device or small device, assembled with their hands. Even low-power fitolampy have a great light output. Modern models are equipped with a temperature control system, convenient switch spectrum for different growth periods.