Hydrangea at the Botanical classification belongs to the same family. Now these flowers bloom profusely in gardens and majestically sits in pots on the windowsill, looking out of Windows. In Europe, hydrangea appeared more than six centuries ago. Exotic plants were brought at different times from North America and Asia to France and England. Like any gimmick, it cost a lot of money and the collection of only the wealthy. In Europe initially hydrangea was represented by only two colors: scarlet and white. Subsequently, thanks to the efforts of breeders, there blossoms new colors. Although hydrangeas grow in large areas of North and South America, the Far East of Russia and Asia, the most widely used flower got in China and Japan. In
The land of the rising sun gave him the name of ajisai, which is translated from kanji, as “purple sun flower”. The lush bushes of hydrangeas can be seen in the ancient Japanese city, one of the former capitals of the country — kamakura. In addition to the statues of Buddha and numerous shrines, there is Meigetsu-in or Ajisai-Dera, which translates as “Temple of Hydrangeas”. The complex exists since the year 1160 and over the course of this time the building was carefully surrounded by the bright blue clouds of the buds of hydrangea varieties Princess. At the beginning of summer, the temple turns into a huge fragrant garden, which attracts tourists. Now to get such magnificence for your home is easy. Let’s learn about the vagaries of the hydrangea garden, the peculiarities of cultivation and the species classification.
- Features hydrangeas
- Species and varieties
- Hydrangea macrophylla or garden
- Hydrangea paniculata
- Hydrangea of Bretschneidera or groundcover
- Hydrangea petiolate, or climbing
- Hydrangea ashy or grey
- Hydrangea tree
- Hydrangea oakleaf
- Hydrangea radiata
- Hydrangea serrate
- The Sargent Hydrangea
- Features growing and caring for hydrangeas outdoors
- Site selection, soil preparation and planting of shrub
- Watering, fertilizing and mulching
- The rules of trimming
- What to do to change the color of the inflorescence
- Preparing for winter
- Combating diseases and pests of hydrangea
- Methods of reproduction
- What to plant next to the hydrangea – choose partners and companions
- Hydrangea in landscape design the garden and dacha
- Hydrangea and styles
- Create flowerbeds with hydrangea
The exact age of hydrangea is that the install failed. Scientists give sometimes fantastic figures of tens of millions of years. The reason for such statements, they have: independent excavations on different continents showed that the seeds of plants preserved in the earth since the days of the Cenozoic era. The first botanist who introduced the General public with Hortense, was John Bartram. A self-taught enthusiast, he organized an expedition to the Appalachian mountains in 1732, where he discovered a new plant species that previously science was unknown. Among them was a tree and hydrangea. It first brought to the Old world from the New. The European name “hydrangea” plant gave the French botanist and naturalist Philibert Commerson. It comes from the Latin “hortus”, which translates as “garden”. Subsequently, in a later classification hydrangeas renamed “hydrangea”, which translated from Greek means “container of water”. According to popular belief, the new name for the flower was due to the special shape of seed pods that look like small jugs. Although the official name has changed, and textbooks hydrangeas began to call otherwise, commonly has preserved the name by which he called the plant Commerson.
Some people believe that the exotic flower nerd named in honor of his beloved, as in those days, the Hydrangea is often called girls.
However, due to the large number of “contestants” who could rouse the soul of Commerson, the true inspiration of the name Hydrangea is among the historical figures to calculate and failed. The second home of the flower is Japan. To catch a rare species in this country and take them in the Middle ages, it was almost impossible. Since 1639, she became closed to foreigners. Enthusiasts had to get out, coming up with original ways of removal of the plant. Botanist Carl Thunberg and physician Philipp von Sybolic opened to the world two varieties: the large-leaved hydrangea and panicle, respectively. Last for their activities even paid a couple of years in Japanese prisons. After that, the doctor was expelled from the country without right to return, but he kept still valuable sprouts and brought them to Holland. In parallel, from China was imported another variety called hydrangea Joseph banks in honor of the founder of Kew Gardens in England, where it was first planted.
The sensation produced a novelty, just a couple of years came to naught, and the flower is undeservedly forgotten. However, oblivion did not last long (if you compare with the age of the plants), just a couple of decades, and today we can witness a new boom on the beautiful hydrangea that delights splendor of blooms and variety of colors.
Immediately after the appearance in the Old world, the first batch of flowers have gone to private collections and personal greenhouses. Just a couple of sprouts came to Belgium. In this country, in the Middle ages flourished (and in a figurative and literal sense of the word) the city of Ghent. He subsequently obtained an unofficial status of “City of flowers”. Several private farms for several centuries is grown the most unusual, exotic for the European plants, which was subsequently sold. Business has been booming as fashion entered the large greenhouses and winter gardens, which the rich decorated their mansions. To this day, every five years in Ghent, the festival of colors “Ghent Floralia”. To grow hydrangeas “on an industrial scale” it began in the beginning of the last century. The flower business was divided between several local families. Although in greenhouses grow mostly indoor types, they repeatedly received the highest awards at various competitions and festivals.
Lush bunches of buds, lush leaves, really worthy of the attention of gardeners. In addition to the luxurious appearance, the flower has a docile nature and practically does not show whims. The only thing without which hydrangea literally can not live, so it’s abundant watering. Water the plant likes, but with the sun he has developed more complex relationships: it will be pleasing flowers, growing even in the shadow zone of the garden. High bushes can perform the role of hedges on the site. The variety of colors and even different shades of blooms on one Bush, allow you to bring new colors to the palette of the landscape and to choose a tone for your mood.
Species and varieties
The genus Hydrangea combines a few dozen types. Concerning their exact number nerds no consensus. As usual, in the scientific community, the debate continues: some they demand to merge into one, and others Vice versa — to divide on the basis of significant differences between plants. Hydrangea grows not only in the form of shrubs and trees, and even vines. Consider ten types, which have gained the greatest popularity among gardeners.
See also: Decorative windmill for the garden with his own hands 50 fotogallerie bigleaf or garden
Hydrangea macrophylla or garden — shrub that can reach heights of up to 4 m. it Has broad leaves with pointed tips, generously covering the twigs. Pink flowers are collected in inflorescence-Metalock. In the cultural varieties is still found in blue and white color. Unlike other species of the genus Hydrangea, this plant loves the sun and can be planted in areas with a weak penumbra. This kind of, despite the “garden” name, actively planted in pots and mount on the window sills. Prefers medium to slightly acidic soil. Depending on their acidity may change the color of the buds. To maintain the plants, which were planted in alkaline soil, experts recommend to water it with a solution with a salt content. Has a low resistance to frost, which in the open ground it grows only in the South of Russia. In other regions it is grown in closed greenhouses and winter gardens. To increase the frost resistance of plants is possible only with proper care and abundant watering in summer. Blossoms will form on last year’s shoots, so to keep them is the main task of the gardener. If you still take the risk and plant hydrangeas outdoors in the middle lane, then winter Bush have securely hide. You can use the same materials as for the delicate garden roses. Grows fast, well propagated by cuttings.
Hydrangea paniculata, the shrubs and trees that can grow to a height of About 10 m. this species, originally from Asia, we mentioned earlier. The natural habitat of paniculate hydrangea — China, Japan and far East Russia. Although Crohn’s in ornamental trees wide enough, their roots lie not deep, only 0.5-1 m deep in the soil. Prefers loose forest soil.
It grows mainly on forest edges and clearings. Inflorescence, in contrast to the garden hydrangea, have the shape of pyramids and the diameter can reach up to 25 cm Leaves of the trees elongated, densely cover the branches. The white flowers bloom in late June and fade at the end of October. Interestingly, fertile inflorescences, which are located in the middle of the clusters, early fall, and the barren, framing the “pyramid”, eventually partially turn pink and stay until the first frost. Hydrangea paniculata is very fast in growth, if climatic conditions contribute to this. Well propagated by cuttings. If you plant hydrangeas from seed, the first flowering can be observed only in the fourth year of growth.
The plant prefers acidic or neutral soil. Reacts negatively to the impurities in the form of ash, chalk, lime. To grow a tree, twice in the summer, hydrangeas have removed the buds on the side shoots.
Hydrangea of Bretschneidera or groundcover
Hydrangea of Bretschneidera got its name in honor of the Russian botanist and geographer. Shrubs may have a crown diameter of up to 3 m and extend to a height of 4 m, as the bigleaf hydrangea. In the middle latitudes of Russia may freeze. Blooms throughout the summer and early autumn. Has a wide, very large (the largest in the genus) leaves are slightly elongated shape with a characteristic “notches” along the contour. The flowers are also large, are collected in common to most types of brushes, but less lush than the garden or hydrangea paniculata. Has a superficial root system.
Inflorescence in the early flowering white in color, later darken and become deep purple. The leaves, initially has a milky-green color, later darken and Sep become dark brown. Prefers acidic or neutral soil. Like other members of the species, loves abundant watering, but grows poorly in the shade. The plant should be fertilized with formulations rich in iron and magnesium. Pruning is performed in spring before the SAP flow. Weak shoots are removed to a well-developed node. If the time cut was missed and the SAP flow has already started, to get weak and podmerzshie shoots after letting off of the leaves. Looks great in mixed borders and as hedges. Gets on well with perennials.
Inflorescence of hydrangea Bretschneideri hold their shape well after drying, so they are often used as components of dry bouquets or decorative compositions.
Hydrangea petiolate, or climbing
Hydrangea petiolate, or climbing is a unique kind of weaving that does not have a trunk. If you compare the plant with other members of the genus, the flower is extremely undemanding. All he needs is abundant watering and free space for lush growth. Has broad leaves and white blossoms, gathered in a lush brush. The hydrangea is hardy, but young shoots the first couple of years of better shelter for the winter.
Is classified into several types: cordifolia, petiolaris, Miranda, curly vine. Prefers partial shade. Ideal for decoration of facades of houses, porches, verandas, arbors, pergolas and patio. Can easily replace grapes, hops, clematis or ivy. Planted in slightly acidic soil. Often becomes a target for pests. Has a poorly developed, shallow root system. Requires systematic feeding (especially in the first years). Well propagated by cuttings and with the help of taps. The cuttings are cut off in the middle of spring, and the branches just dropped near the Bush in the pre-nourished soil.
Hydrangea ashy or grey
Ashy hydrangea gets its name from the gray tint of the leaves on the reverse side. Has large tufts of white blossoms. Cultivars can be blue or pink. Homeland ashy hydrangea is considered North America. In our country the plant has not received widespread popularity, although its flowering period takes almost three months (July to September). Prefers slightly acidic and neutral soils. Not tolerate the impurities of lime or too dense soil, wetlands. Loves abundant watering, semi-shade.
Shrubs can reach a height of 2 m. Have a broad crown. Require regular pruning, without which acquire launched and groomed appearance. When pruning to form the strongest branches that will become the “skeleton” of the shrub. Subsequently, the shoots are pruned immediately after the buds swell, after which the plants feed. Young bushes is desirable to hide for the winter.
Hydrangea tree is widely distributed in the North America. Shrubs grow to 3 m in height. Wide leaves and blossoms collected in a magnificent white brush. The plant is hardy and can survive short dry period. Prefers well-moistened soil. The weak point of the tree hydrangeas are sensitive to drafts.
In the garden it is better to choose a quiet place in the shade, surrounded by natural barriers that will not let the wind roam. The flowering period stretches from mid-July to October. In the Russian climate may freeze. Every year in late spring need pruning shoots almost at the root. In the future you can use them as cuttings. To strengthen the health of the hydrangea is recommended to water it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate along the barrel.
See also: Pergolas wood: projects and design ideas
The oakleaf hydrangea, as the ash, native to southern regions of North America. It nezametnym, so in our latitudes in the open ground is not cultivated, but the ideal closed greenhouse. Has luxurious pyramid “bunches” of flowers and large leaves with serrated blades that look like grape. By autumn the foliage becomes purplish-Magenta.
Inflorescences are initially white, towards the end of flowering turn pink. Prefers slightly acidic soil. Allowed planting in alkaline, but with the introduction of the correct sour dressing. Not tolerate even short dry periods. Needs regular, generous watering. Prefers partial shade with a light, diffused light. Oakleaf hydrangea should be fertilized twice a year: in early spring and just before flowering. In winter, the bushes need to cover.
You can use spruce branches. Shrubs more than 1 m it is necessary to tie to the supports, to snow their weight broke the branches.
This species is also native to North America. Has a low resistance to frost, so in an average strip of Russia in the open ground is not cultivated. Shrub up to 2 m in height. Has a curvy brush blossoms, painted white. The leaves are large, with typical minor chipping and elongated tip. Cover the branches unevenly. The flowering period is rather short (July-August). In comparison with other members of the species, hydrangea radiata boasts the fastest growth rate.
In Russia survives only in the southern regions. In the winter necessarily harboring not only a ground part of the plant, but the delicate root system. The process of growing hydrangea radiata from seed is very time consuming. Prepare the soil in autumn. Young shoots subsequently have to be fed regularly, to hide from the night frosts. Planting seedlings is much simpler: it only needs to be proporcionate, pour water pooled and generously fed. Likes partial shade and slightly acidic soil.
Hydrangea serrate — lush shrub reaching a height of 1.5 m. the Leaves are small, spindle-shaped with a sharp tip. At the beginning of flowering have a rich, dense green color. Inflorescences are collected in loose brush. Can change color depending on soil acidity. In slightly acidic soil fertile flowers core are deep blue, and barren on the edges of the blue with a white border. Also found a beautiful lilac color. Before flowering-sterile flowers on the edges of the brushes turn pink. The flowering period lasts from July to September. If the climate the plant is not suitable or it has not received proper care, this period is shortened to Aug. The most popular variety serrated hydrangea is considered to be the Blue Bird. Inflorescence “Blue Birds” have unusual blue-violet-Magenta color. Like most members of the genus, serrated hydrangea prefers a slightly acidic soil, with scattered light and abundant watering.
When growing in the open ground in Central Russia, the plant must be covered for winter. In southern regions, additional insulation is not required, but in the absence of extreme temperatures. In addition to cuttings, hydrangea serrate well propagated by division. Bush completely dug out from the soil and divided into two parts, with the condition that stay on each kidney regeneration.
The Sargent Hydrangea
The Sargent hydrangea is a tall shrub native to China. Was named in honor of the eminent American botanist who was the first Director of the Botanical garden at Harvard University. The shrub can reach a height of 4 m. it Has stiff branches, covered with fibers. The leaves are large, velvety, slightly elongated shape. The flowers are collected in inflorescence in the form of a flat umbrella. Fertile have a rich purple, and the edges of the sterile white color. The species is characterized by a short flowering period from early July to early August.
In Central Russia fruit boxes do not have time to ripen. To grow hydrangea from seeds is almost impossible, so it is propagated vegetatively (cuttings and layering). In winter, the shrubs carefully hide. The ground part of the plants are very often freezes, but with proper care quickly restored. Prefers acidic soil. Requires abundant watering, as well as other types of hydrangeas.
Features growing and caring for hydrangeas outdoors
As we mentioned earlier, this plant cannot be attributed to the category of whimsical. For example, if you compare it to the Queen of flowers — rose, which reacts strongly to any climate changes or schedule care, hydrangea meek and unpretentious lady. Irregular watering is the only thing it will not be tolerated under any circumstances. Several varieties of hydrangea are able to withstand short-term drought, but this is the exception rather the rule. Like any other garden flower, caring for it must be implemented according to certain rules, which will be discussed further.
Site selection, soil preparation and planting of shrub
To plant a hydrangea is recommended in the spring. The soil can be prepared in the fall, thoroughly tryhow and adding fertilizers. As in all species of hydrangeas (even trees) the root system is shallow, that is, the processes do not penetrate deeply into the soil, preferring to stretch to the side, enough pit depth of 0.7 m. the Place should be well protected from the wind. Direct sunlight will cause the shrub to dry, so it is best to choose partial shade. Maybe near tall tree with a broad crown. The scattered light will penetrate through the foliage — the best option for hydrangeas.
The plant prefers loose, slightly acidic or acidic soil. In the excavated hole to fill the peat and fertilizer. Its width should twice exceed the size of the root system of the seedling. It is removed from the pot, carefully shake and covered with soil mixed with compost. Clod of earth with the seedling should slightly rise above the ground. Tamp the soil, watered and mulched.
Watering, fertilizing and mulching
On adult shrubs at one time poured to 50 liters of water. If the soil around hydrangeas mulch, the volume can be reduced. During the summer the ground around the bushes need to be loosened (to a depth of 5 cm) at least three or four times. During flowering withered shoots should be promptly removed. Fertilizing Bush carried out twice a year: in spring and after flowering period. For these purposes, buy special formulations that are balanced specifically for hydrangeas. Mulching the land better than the fir needles or shredded bark.
The rules of trimming
During the first four years (up to first flowering) hydrangeas are not pruned at all. For the fifth year in early spring, after buds swell, twigs pruned by about a third. You need to leave three to six buds. For oakleaf hydrangea pruning at all possible, as it blooms on last year shoots.
What to do to change the color of the inflorescence
Color inflorescences of hydrangea can be changed personally. Of flower we have already mentioned: the plant reacts strongly to changes in soil acidity that manifests itself in changing hues of the petals. So they temporarily repainted in blue, enough to water the hydrangea with a weak solution of manganese. Blossoms back to white immediately after the cessation of watering. To get the shade of blue, Bush watered with a weak solution of alum or aluminium sulphate. The solution with low concentration of ferrous sulfate will change color to purple.
Actually, the color change not the petals, and their veins, that is, the shade is not homogeneous.
Preparing for winter
The soil around the shrub need to hoe and mulch. Then cut withered shoots and lower leaves. The last pruning promotes lignification of the barrel, i.e. the formation of natural protection from the cold. Paniculata hydrangeas and ground cover can not be covered for winter. These two species are the most hardy. The rest will have to further insulate. You can use twigs or nonwoven material. If the Bush is high, then it is tie to the support below the branches did not break under the weight of snow. The procedure of covering conduct in early October, immediately after the first timid frost. Very young shrubs just covered with mixture of soil and fallen leaves.
See also: Design pavilions: what type to choose +75 photo ideas
Combating diseases and pests of hydrangea
Hydrangea are fairly resistant to diseases, but with improper care or inappropriate conditions can begin to wither. The two main dangers for a flower — chlorosis and fungal diseases (white, grey rot). First the disease develops when insufficient iron. If the shoots wither, the leaves turn yellow and curl, and blossoms are deformed, it’s time to nourish the hive with a solution containing iron. White mold and gray mold treat fungal diseases, which first hit the root system. The first sign of infection — a characteristic fuzz on the stem and branchlets. Diseases are treated with special fungicides. Damaged branches pruned.
Less striking hydrangea Septoria leaf spot. The first sign of the disease — the appearance of black spots on the leaves. In the advanced form, they are striking and twigs. If time does not stop the progression of the disease, the plant lost their leaves, will die. Treat Septoria preparations containing copper. Powdery mildew is also evident in the spots on the foliage, but light gray. If the Bush will be affected by the disease, you will not be able to survive the winter. Treat powdery mildew with special fungicides.
Methods of reproduction
There are four methods of propagation of hydrangea:
- The division of the Bush.
The latter is the most time-consuming and is suitable only for professional gardeners who “ate a dog” in this craft. Beginner is better to pay attention to the first three ways. The division of the Bush, about which we wrote above, is simple: the plant is carefully dug up and divided into two parts. On each part with the roots have to stay kidney regeneration. Then they are put into two different holes. Propagation by cuttings is the most popular method of propagation of plants. From the adult Bush pinch off process. The highest quality obtained cuttings from lateral branches. The slicer need to do it under the host or under the kidney. The cuttings tied into bundles, cut the unwanted leaves, leaving every one or two buds.
The bottom bundle is treated with a growth stimulant. They are planted in drained soil at an angle. Rooted cuttings are usually for a month at temperatures of 15-25 degrees. Cuttings carried out in mid-summer. For propagation of cuttings, side shoots of the parent plant bends to the ground and pin, prikopat in shallow holes. Previously on the branches to make cuts into which insert a match. Such tissue damage will promote faster formation of roots. Pinned shoots sprinkled with a mixture of peat and soil. They need to be watered regularly. After the formation of a full root system the plant can be separated from the parent and transplanted elsewhere.
What to plant next to the hydrangea – choose partners and companions
Hydrangeas go perfectly with the lilac bushes. Large inflorescences of plants harmonize with each other, emphasizing the splendor and solemnity of even a slight clearance. Small flowers of Spiraea and mock orange — another version of the add-ons for brushes hydrangeas. Since all species belong to the moisture-loving shrubs can be planted near the pond. In this area, they may be combined with thickets bergenia and astilbe. Another option for group planting — combine with other shrubs in the composition of the hedges (boxwood, cotoneaster, juniper). You can experiment and plant out a hydrangea next to the colors “Royal blood”: lilies or roses. For trudging species as a neighbor suitable clematis or ivy.
Hydrangea in landscape design the garden and dacha
Hydrangea, because of its simplicity, the richness of forms and colors has become popular in landscape design. And any other flower you can still change the color yourself in the mood or under the palette of the site? It is often found in the composition of mixed borders, rock gardens, decorative compositions, and as hedges. Hydrangea is suitable for both group and single plantings. The versatility, beauty, long flowering period, easy care — these are the very qualities for which the landscape designers appreciate this flower.
Hydrangea and styles
Hydrangea universal. It can be integrated into any stylistic decision. Flowers to spoil the plot only if they have slovenly, unkempt appearance. Hydrangea is perfectly suited to the Japanese ethnic style. In a minimalist design, she was always a welcome guest. Lush blossoms complement the diversity of the garden, decorated in the styles of country, modernist, naturgarten, ethnics. The last group deserves special attention. Hydrangea organically entered in a chaotic, lush plantations of the Moorish style and the restrained, simple English composite ensembles.
Create flowerbeds with hydrangea
Low, neatly trimmed shrubs hydrangeas are suitable for neat flower beds near the house and along the tracks. High spaces will be the center free song, ridges, mixborders or strips of live fences. Since hydrangea is a perennial plant, flower bed, continuous flowering you need to protect low-growing conifers that will set off the brilliance of the “core” of the composition. Place for a flower garden, clean up weeds, dug over and fertilized. To combine the components of the composition need the colors and height. If the bed adjacent to the fence or other barrier, that is, unilateral, first planted tall plants, gradually moving to the lower. If the flower is centered (for example, between the garden paths), the flowers have in the center.
Hydrangea is an amazing flower with a long history. Although we have long ceased to be exotic, the plant still wins the hearts of gardeners blend of simplicity and sophistication. If you are just beginning to work in the garden, you have little experience in the cultivation of green plants, the hardy hydrangea is a good option for a first experiment.